Table of Contents
Stratego programs transform terms. When using Stratego for program transformation terms typically represent the abstract syntax tree of a program. But Stratego does not much care what a term represents. Terms can just as well represent structured documents, software models, or anything else that can be rendered in a structured format. The chapters in Part II show how to transform a program text into a term by means of parsing, and to turn a term into program text again by means of pretty-printing. From now on we will just assume that we have terms that should be transformed and ignore parsing and pretty-printing.
Terms in Stratego are terms in the Annotated Term Format, or
ATerms for short. The ATerm format provides a set of constructs
for representing trees, comparable to XML or abstract data types
in functional programming languages.
For example, the code
4 + f(5 * x) might be
represented in a term as:
Plus(Int("4"), Call("f", [Mul(Int("5"), Var("x"))]))
ATerms are constructed from the following elements:
An integer constant, that is a list of decimal digits, is
an ATerm. Examples:
A string constant, that is a list of characters between
double quotes is an ATerm. Special characters such as
double quotes and newlines should be escaped using a
backslash. The backslash character itself should be
escaped as well.
"escaped escape character\\ and a
A constructor is an identifier, that is an alphanumeric string starting with a letter, or a double quoted string.
A constructor application
creates a term by applying a constructor to a list of
zero or more terms.
For example, the term
Plus(Int("4"),Var("x")) uses the
Var to create a nested term from the strings
When a constructor application has no subterms the
parentheses may be omitted. Thus, the term
Zero is equivalent to
Zero(). Some people consider it good style
to explicitly write the parentheses for nullary terms in
Stratego programs. Through this rule, it is clear that a
string is really a special case of a constructor
A list is a term of the form
that is a list of zero or more terms between square
While all applications of a specific constructor
typically have the same number of subterms, lists can
have a variable number of subterms. The elements of a
list are typically of the same type, while the subterms
of a constructor application can vary in type.
Example: The second argument of the call to
"f" in the term
Call("f",[Int("5"),Var("x")]) is a list of
(t1,...,tn) is a constructor
application without constructor.
The elements defined above are used to create the
structural part of terms. Optionally, a term can be
annotated with a list terms. These annotations typically
carry additional semantic information about the term. An
annotated term has the form
The contents of annotations is up to the application.
The term format described above is used in Stratego programs to denote terms, but is also used to exchange terms between programs. Thus, the internal format and the external format exactly coincide. Of course, internally a Stratego program uses a data-structure in memory with pointers rather than manipulating a textual representation of terms. But this is completely hidden from the Stratego programmer. There are a few facts that are useful to be aware of, though.
The internal representation used in Stratego programs maintains maximal sharing of subterms. This means that all occurrences of a subterm are represented by a pointer to the same node in memory. This makes comparing terms in Stratego for syntactic equality a very cheap operation, i.e., just a pointer comparison.
TODO: picture of tree vs dag representation
When writing a term to a file in order to exchange it with another tool there are several representations to choose from. The textual format described above is the canonical `meaning' of terms, but does not preserve maximal sharing. Therefore, there is also a Binary ATerm Format (BAF) that preserves sharing in terms. The program baffle can be used to convert between the textual and binary representations.
As a Stratego programmer you will be looking a lot at raw ATerms. Stratego pioneers would do this by opening an ATerm file in emacs and trying to get a sense of the structure by parenthesis highlighting and inserting newlines here and there. These days your life is much more pleasant through the tool pp-aterm, which adds layout to a term to make it readable. For example, parsing the following program
let function fact(n : int) : int = if n < 1 then 1 else (n * fact(n - 1)) in printint(fact(10)) end
produces the following ATerm (say in file fac.trm):
Let([FunDecs([FunDec("fact",[FArg("n",Tp(Tid("int")))],Tp(Tid("int")), If(Lt(Var("n"),Int("1")),Int("1"),Seq([Times(Var("n"),Call(Var("fact"), [Minus(Var("n"),Int("1"))]))])))])],[Call(Var("printint"),[Call(Var( "fact"),[Int("10")])])])
By pretty-printing the term using
$ pp-aterm -i fac.trm -o fac-pp.trm --max-term-size 20
we get a much more readable term:
Let( [ FunDecs( [ FunDec( "fact" , [FArg("n", Tp(Tid("int")))] , Tp(Tid("int")) , If( Lt(Var("n"), Int("1")) , Int("1") , Seq([ Times(Var("n"), Call(Var("fact"), [Minus(Var("n"), Int("1"))])) ]) ) ) ] ) ] , [ Call(Var("printint"), [Call(Var("fact"), [Int("10")])]) ] )
To use terms in Stratego programs, their constructors should be
declared in a signature. A signature declares a number of
sorts and a number of
these sorts. For each constructor, a signature declares the
number and types of its arguments. For example, the following
signature declares some typical constructors for constructing
abstract syntax trees of expressions in a programming language:
signature sorts Id Exp constructors : String -> Id Var : Id -> Exp Int : Int -> Exp Plus : Exp * Exp -> Exp Mul : Exp * Exp -> Exp Call : Id * List(Exp) -> Exp
Currently, the Stratego compiler only checks the arity of constructor applications against the signature. Still, it is considered good style to also declare the types of constructors in a sensible manner for the purpose of documentation. Also, a later version of the language may introduce typechecking.